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Logic and Continuations

Posted on September 12, 2013
Tags: haskell

In Haskell there’s a monad known as Cont. Most people don’t use it, but it’s pretty cool. The basic idea is that

     Cont r a = Cont {runCont :: (a -> r) -> r}

The intuition being that that (a -> r) term is the “rest of the program”. You feed it the type it is expecting and it will happily run the rest of your computation.

Deriving Monad (Cont r)

return is easy

    return a = Cont ($a)


    return a = Cont $ \c -> c a

Bind is a little trickier

    (Cont c) >>= f = Cont (\rest -> c $ \a -> runCont (f a) rest)

Think of this as feeding the continuation c :: (a -> r) -> r a function made by with a continuation runCont . f :: a -> (b -> r) -> r and rest :: (b -> r) to make something of type a -> r.

Yeah it hurts your head a little.

Now let’s talk about seeing into the future.

Back to the Future

First things first, to conform with how the MTL does stuff

     cont = Cont

Because in the real Control.Monad.Cont, there’s a monad transformer and a type synonym

     type Cont r a = ContT r Identity a

or something like that.

Let’s try a simple application of Cont. Suppose we have a function of type [a -> Bool] -> [a] -> [a] and we want to return the longest list of as that satisfies one of the predicates in our list. Yeah it’s contrived but I’ll show you a more realistic example in a second:

     longest preds as = do
       p <- selectPred preds
       return (filter p as)

Now we just need to define selectPred so that it can “know” which predicate will return the longest list

    selectPred ps = cont $ \c -> maxBy length . map c $ ps

That’s it. It’s actually running the program with each possible value and then returns the best result. Cool right?

Note that it’s kind of important that things are pure here. If you have an unsafePerformIO and you start backtracking things get hairy. However, since you can toss around IOs without evaluating them, eg

     const 1 (print "foo")

Doesn’t print foo or anything, you can have ContT layered over IO.

Logic Framework

Now let’s use this to create a simple framework for non-deterministic logic programming. Some skeleton code:

    {-# LANGUAGE RankNTypes #-}
    newtype Logic a = Logic {runLogic :: forall r.  Cont (Maybe r) a}
    instance Monad Logic where
      return a = Logic $ return a
      (Logic c) >>= f  = Logic $ c >>= runLogic . f

The RankNTypes basically says a logical computation can’t make assumptions about the result, which is pretty reasonable. The monad instance is just relying on the underlying Cont instance. Now we want three functions:

    amb :: [a] -> Logic a
    disconj :: Logic a -> Logic a -> Logic a
    backtrack :: Logic ()

where backtrack backtracks to the nearest amb and tries the next element and disconj simply joins together two propositions and chooses an element from one that won’t fail (return Nothing).

    backtrack = Logic (cont $ const Nothing)
    disconj (Logic a) (Logic b) = Logic (cont $ \c -> runCont a c `mplus` runCont b c)
    amb as = Logic (cont $ \c -> join . find isJust . map (c$) $ as)

Note: with RankNTypes weird things can happen with . for example, using Logic . cont is ill typed presumably because GHC restricts the Cont being fed to Logic.

Now these actually map nicely to an existing typeclass.

     instance MonadPlus Logic where
       mzero = backtrack
       mplus = disconj

Also helpful is

    evaluate :: Logic a -> Maybe a
    evaluate = flip runCont Just . runLogic

So let’s try it out:

     main = print . evaluate $ do
       a <- amb [1, 2, 3] :: Logic Integer
       b <- amb [4, 5, 6]
       when (a + b /= 9) mzero
       return (a, b)

and perhaps a helpful combinator

     assert = flip when mzero


     main = print . evaluate $ do
       a <- amb "floor"
       b <- amb "bar"
       assert (a==b)
       return (a, b)

And there you have it, using continuations we have created a logic DSL. The interesting bit is that each amb is actually running the code multiple times and “seeing into the future”. Once it has which element will actually return a desirable result it pops it back. Nifty.

An exercise to the reader

A useful exercise is to add 1 of 2 combinators

    cut :: Logic ()
    interleave :: Logic a -> Logic b -> Logic (a, b)

cut doesn’t backtrack. To implement this, you’ll have to use callCC and pass the escape continuation around and call it from cut if something tries to backtrack past it.

interleave is also cool, it’s fair disjunction. Our current setup can’t handle

     a <- amb [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
     b <- amb [1..]
     assert ( a == 2 )

It’ll get stuck fiddling with the value of b! With interleave we’d type

     (a, b) <- interleave (amb [1, 2, 3]) (amb [1..])

and it will give us pairs “fairly” by returning pairs so that the probability of (n, m) being returned when n is a elements into the first computation and m is b elements into the second is k / (a + b).

Good luck!

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